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Julian Lienen

 Julian Lienen

Intelligente Systeme und Maschinelles Lernen

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

Zukunftsmeile 2
33102 Paderborn

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Kronecker Decomposition for Knowledge Graph Embeddings

C. Demir, J. Lienen, A. Ngonga Ngomo, in: arXiv:2205.06560, 2022

Knowledge graph embedding research has mainly focused on learning continuous representations of entities and relations tailored towards the link prediction problem. Recent results indicate an ever increasing predictive ability of current approaches on benchmark datasets. However, this effectiveness often comes with the cost of over-parameterization and increased computationally complexity. The former induces extensive hyperparameter optimization to mitigate malicious overfitting. The latter magnifies the importance of winning the hardware lottery. Here, we investigate a remedy for the first problem. We propose a technique based on Kronecker decomposition to reduce the number of parameters in a knowledge graph embedding model, while retaining its expressiveness. Through Kronecker decomposition, large embedding matrices are split into smaller embedding matrices during the training process. Hence, embeddings of knowledge graphs are not plainly retrieved but reconstructed on the fly. The decomposition ensures that elementwise interactions between three embedding vectors are extended with interactions within each embedding vector. This implicitly reduces redundancy in embedding vectors and encourages feature reuse. To quantify the impact of applying Kronecker decomposition on embedding matrices, we conduct a series of experiments on benchmark datasets. Our experiments suggest that applying Kronecker decomposition on embedding matrices leads to an improved parameter efficiency on all benchmark datasets. Moreover, empirical evidence suggests that reconstructed embeddings entail robustness against noise in the input knowledge graph. To foster reproducible research, we provide an open-source implementation of our approach, including training and evaluation scripts as well as pre-trained models in our knowledge graph embedding framework.

Conformal Credal Self-Supervised Learning

J. Lienen, C. Demir, E. Hüllermeier, in: arXiv:2205.15239, 2022

In semi-supervised learning, the paradigm of self-training refers to the idea of learning from pseudo-labels suggested by the learner itself. Across various domains, corresponding methods have proven effective and achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, pseudo-labels typically stem from ad-hoc heuristics, relying on the quality of the predictions though without guaranteeing their validity. One such method, so-called credal self-supervised learning, maintains pseudo-supervision in the form of sets of (instead of single) probability distributions over labels, thereby allowing for a flexible yet uncertainty-aware labeling. Again, however, there is no justification beyond empirical effectiveness. To address this deficiency, we make use of conformal prediction, an approach that comes with guarantees on the validity of set-valued predictions. As a result, the construction of credal sets of labels is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation, leading to better calibrated and less error-prone supervision for unlabeled data. Along with this, we present effective algorithms for learning from credal self-supervision. An empirical study demonstrates excellent calibration properties of the pseudo-supervision, as well as the competitiveness of our method on several benchmark datasets.

Memorization-Dilation: Modeling Neural Collapse Under Noise

D.A. Nguyen, R. Levie, J. Lienen, G. Kutyniok, E. Hüllermeier, in: arXiv:2206.05530, 2022

The notion of neural collapse refers to several emergent phenomena that have been empirically observed across various canonical classification problems. During the terminal phase of training a deep neural network, the feature embedding of all examples of the same class tend to collapse to a single representation, and the features of different classes tend to separate as much as possible. Neural collapse is often studied through a simplified model, called the unconstrained feature representation, in which the model is assumed to have "infinite expressivity" and can map each data point to any arbitrary representation. In this work, we propose a more realistic variant of the unconstrained feature representation that takes the limited expressivity of the network into account. Empirical evidence suggests that the memorization of noisy data points leads to a degradation (dilation) of the neural collapse. Using a model of the memorization-dilation (M-D) phenomenon, we show one mechanism by which different losses lead to different performances of the trained network on noisy data. Our proofs reveal why label smoothing, a modification of cross-entropy empirically observed to produce a regularization effect, leads to improved generalization in classification tasks.


Credal Self-Supervised Learning

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, in: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34: Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, NeurIPS, 2021

Robust Regression for Monocular Depth Estimation

J. Lienen, N. Nommensen, R. Ewerth, E. Hüllermeier, in: 13th Asian Conference on Machine Learning, ACML, 2021

Instance weighting through data imprecisiation

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning (2021)

From Label Smoothing to Label Relaxation

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, in: Proceedings of the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI, AAAI Press, 2021, pp. 8583-8591

Monocular Depth Estimation via Listwise Ranking using the Plackett-Luce Model

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, R. Ewerth, N. Nommensen, in: Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR, 2021, pp. 14595-14604

Credal Self-Supervised Learning

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, in: arXiv:2106.11853, 2021

Self-training is an effective approach to semi-supervised learning. The key idea is to let the learner itself iteratively generate "pseudo-supervision" for unlabeled instances based on its current hypothesis. In combination with consistency regularization, pseudo-labeling has shown promising performance in various domains, for example in computer vision. To account for the hypothetical nature of the pseudo-labels, these are commonly provided in the form of probability distributions. Still, one may argue that even a probability distribution represents an excessive level of informedness, as it suggests that the learner precisely knows the ground-truth conditional probabilities. In our approach, we therefore allow the learner to label instances in the form of credal sets, that is, sets of (candidate) probability distributions. Thanks to this increased expressiveness, the learner is able to represent uncertainty and a lack of knowledge in a more flexible and more faithful manner. To learn from weakly labeled data of that kind, we leverage methods that have recently been proposed in the realm of so-called superset learning. In an exhaustive empirical evaluation, we compare our methodology to state-of-the-art self-supervision approaches, showing competitive to superior performance especially in low-label scenarios incorporating a high degree of uncertainty.


Monocular Depth Estimation via Listwise Ranking using the Plackett-Luce model

J. Lienen, E. Hüllermeier, in: arXiv:2010.13118, 2020

In many real-world applications, the relative depth of objects in an image is crucial for scene understanding, e.g., to calculate occlusions in augmented reality scenes. Predicting depth in monocular images has recently been tackled using machine learning methods, mainly by treating the problem as a regression task. Yet, being interested in an order relation in the first place, ranking methods suggest themselves as a natural alternative to regression, and indeed, ranking approaches leveraging pairwise comparisons as training information ("object A is closer to the camera than B") have shown promising performance on this problem. In this paper, we elaborate on the use of so-called \emph{listwise} ranking as a generalization of the pairwise approach. Listwise ranking goes beyond pairwise comparisons between objects and considers rankings of arbitrary length as training information. Our approach is based on the Plackett-Luce model, a probability distribution on rankings, which we combine with a state-of-the-art neural network architecture and a sampling strategy to reduce training complexity. An empirical evaluation on benchmark data in a "zero-shot" setting demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposal compared to existing ranking and regression methods.


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