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Sebastian Gottschalk, M.Sc.

 Sebastian Gottschalk, M.Sc.

Database and Information Systems

Research Student - Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

Software Innovation Campus Paderborn (SICP)

Research Associate

Sonderforschungsbereich 901

Research Associate

+49 5251 60-6588
Zukunftsmeile 2
33102 Paderborn

Open list in Research Information System


Situational Business Model Developer: A Tool-support for Situation-specific Business Model Development

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, AIS, 2022

The development of business models is a challenging task that can be supported with software tools. Here, existing approaches and tools do not focus on the company’s situation in which the development takes place (e.g., financial resources, product type). To tackle this challenge, we used design science research to develop a situation-specific business model development approach that contains three stages: First, existing knowledge in terms of tasks to do (e.g., analyze competitive advantage), and decisions to be made (e.g., social media marketing) are stored in repositories. Second, the knowledge is used to compose a development method based on the company’s situation. Third, the development method is enacted to develop a business model. This demonstration paper presents a tool-support called Situational Business Model Developer that supports all stages of our approach. We release the tool under open-source and evaluate it with a case study on developing business models for mobile apps.

Development and Evaluation of a Collaborative Stock Trading Environment in Virtual Reality

E. Yigitbas, S. Gottschalk, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, AIS, 2022

Due to the proliferation of Virtual Reality (VR) technology, VR is finding new applications in various domains, such as stock trading. Here, traders invest in stocks intending to increase their profit. For this purpose, in conventional stock trading, traders usually make use of 2D applications on desktop or laptop devices. This leads to many drawbacks such as poor visibility due to limited 2D representation, complex interaction due to indirect interaction via mouse and keyboard, or restricted support for collaboration between traders. To overcome these issues, we have developed a novel collaborative, virtual environment for stock trading, which enables stock traders to view financial information and trade stocks with other collaborators. The main results of a usability study indicate that the VR environment, compared to conventional stock trading, shows no significant advantages concerning efficiency and effectiveness, however, we could observe an increased user satisfaction and better collaboration.

Model-driven Continuous Experimentation on Component-based Software Architectures

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion , IEEE, 2022

To build successful software products, developers continuously have to discover what features the users really need. This discovery can be achieved with continuous experimentation, testing different software variants with distinct user groups, and deploying the superior variant for all users. However, existing approaches do not focus on explicit modeling of variants and experiments, which offers advantages such as traceability of decisions and combinability of experiments. Therefore, our vision is the provision of model-driven continuous experimentation, which provides the developer with a framework for structuring the experimentation process. For that, we introduce the overall concept, apply it to the experimentation on component-based software architectures and point out future research questions. In particular, we show the applicability by combining feature models for modeling the software variants, users, and experiments (i.e., model-driven) with MAPE-K for the adaptation (i.e., continuous experimentation) and implementing the concept based on the component-based Angular framework.

Continuous Situation-specific Development of Business Models: Knowledge Provision, Method Composition, Method Enactment

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, International Journal on Software and Systems Modeling (SoSyM) (to appear) (2022)

The development of new business models is essential for startups to become successful, as well as for established companies to explore new business opportunities. However, developing such business models is a continuous challenging activity where different tasks need to be performed, and business decisions need to be made. Both have to fit the constantly changeable situation in which the business model is developed to reduce the risk of developing ineffective business models with low market penetration. Therefore, a method for developing situation-specific business models is needed. As a solution, we refine the concept of situational method engineering (SME) to business model development. SME, in turn, provides means to construct situation-specific development methods out of fragments from a method repository. We develop a concept for the continuous situation-specific development of business models based on design science. The approach uses the roles of a domain expert, a method engineer, and a business developer together with a repository with method fragments for developing business models and a repository with modeling artifacts for supporting the development. Both repositories are filled by utilizing the experience of domain experts. Out of these repositories, situation-specific development methods for developing business models can be continuously composed based on the changeable situation by the method engineer and enacted by the business developer. We implement it as an open-source tool and evaluate its applicability in an industrial case study of developing a business model for a local event platform. Our results show that situation awareness supports the continuous development of business models.

Towards Situation-specific Software Support for Cross-organizational Design Thinking Processes

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Software-intensive Business (IWSiB'22) (to appear), ACM, 2022

Due to the increasing influences of a VUCA world, design thinking workshops have been established as a standard technique to build solutions according to uncertain customer needs. Concerning the ongoing pandemic and rising development of solutions across organizations, more and more workshops were conducted online with software support. However, existing software tools insufficiently address the different workshop situations in terms of the process (i.e., fixed tasks to conduct), the place (e.g., static online whiteboards), and people (i.e., synchronous working of all stakeholders). Therefore, we propose a design science study to develop a situation-specific software support that can be configured with flexible development processes, different places, and task-related people. Based on practical experience in existing research projects, we derive the initial design requirements and map them to a set of design principles. Out of that, we design a concept with its implementation as a software tool and point out open challenges.

Detecting Data Incompatibilities in Process-Driven Decision Support Systems

J. Kirchhoff, S. Gottschalk, G. Engels, in: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer International Publishing, 2022

Decision makers in complex business environments have different goals and constraints and therefore require tailored decision support systems (DSS). Following a low-code approach, a tailored DSS can be created by a decision maker as a process-based composition of existing, interoperable decision support services. Data incompatibilities may be introduced during the design or execution of such a process-driven DSS, e.g., when a service always generates or a decision maker selects data which violates a data constraint of a subsequent service. These incompatibilities cause interrupted or erroneous decision processes. In this paper, we contribute an approach which enables the detection of data incompatibilities in process-driven DSS during process design and execution. Our approach utilizes the JSON Schema specification to define service interfaces and associated type constraints which data produced by services or decision makers can be validated against. We demonstrate our approach in the context of decision support for energy network planning using a prototypical open-source implementation.

Gamification-based UML Learning Environment in Virtual Reality

E. Yigitbas, M.. Schmidt, A. Bucchiarone, S. Gottschalk, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS 2022) (to appear), ACM / IEEE, 2022


Extending Business Model Development Tools with Consolidated Expert Knowledge

S. Gottschalk, J. Kirchhoff, G. Engels, in: Business Modeling and Software Design, 2021

Von datenbasierter zu datengetriebener Geschäftsmodellentwicklung: Ein Überblick über Software-Tools und deren Datennutzung

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2021

Die kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung des eigenen Geschäftsmodells ist für eine Organisation von entscheidender Bedeutung, um wettbewerbsfähig und somit nachhaltig erfolgreich zu bleiben. Während für die Entwicklung neuer Geschäftsmodelle häufig Workshops und einfache Software-Tools zur Visualisierung genutzt werden, wurden in der Forschung bereits erste Ansätze von datengetriebener Geschäftsmodellentwicklung (GME) vorgestellt. Diese Ansätze nutzen dabei Daten, Informationen oder auch Wissen aus internen und externen Unternehmensquellen, um den GME-Prozess zu unterstützen. Innerhalb dieses Beitrags zeigen wir einige Ansätze aus der aktuellen Literatur und analysieren wie ihre Datennutzung den GME-Prozess unterstützt. Weiterhin stellen wir mit dem BMDL Feature Modeler ein Tool vor, welches den GME-Prozess mit Expertenwissen unterstützt.

Distributed merchandise management system

T. Göllner, J. Schwarz, S. Gottschalk, S. Sauer. Distributed merchandise management system, Patent US 2021/0081978 A1. 2021.

The invention describes a distributed merchandise management system, in which the client, retailer and the manufacturer are linked by a network. This is implemented by a cloud storage (105), the cloud storage (105) comprising a means (105 a) for storing data, a means for receiving first data from a first network node (110), the first data being associated with a physical object, a means for receiving request data from a second network node (120), a means for receiving second data from a third network node (130), the second data being associated with the first data and comprising at least one data piece adapted to change the first data depending on the received request data, a means for changing the first data based at least in part on the second data and the request data, and a means for sending a changed portion of the first data from the cloud storage (105) to the first network node (110).

Situation-specific Business Model Development Methods for Mobile App Developers

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, in: Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling, Springer, 2021

The development of effective business models is an essential task in highly competitive markets like mobile ecosystems. Existing development methods for these business models do not specifically focus that the development process profoundly depends on the situation (e.g., market size, regulations) of the mobile app developer. Here, a mismatch between method and situation can lead to poor resource management and longer development cycles. In software engineering, situational method engineering is used for software projects to configure a development method out of a method repository based on the project situation. Analogously, we support creating situation-specific business model development methods with a method base and new user roles. Here, the method engineer obtains the knowledge of the domain expert and stores it in the method base as elements, building blocks, and patterns. The expert knowledge is derived from a grey literature review on mobile development processes. After this, the method engineer constructs the development method based on the described situation of the business developer. We provide an open-source tool and evaluate it by constructing a local event platform's business model development method.

Situation-specific Development of Business Models for Services in Software Ecosystems

S. Gottschalk, in: Advanced Software Engineering. Doctorial Consortium, CEUR, 2021

Towards Visualizing and Simulating Business Models in Dynamic Platform Ecosystems

C. Vorbohle, S. Gottschalk, in: Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), AIS, 2021

Platform-based business models underlie the success of many of today’s largest, fastest-growing, and most disruptive companies. Despite the success of prominent examples, such as Uber and Airbnb, creating a profitable platform ecosystem presents a key challenge for many companies across all industries. Although research provides knowledge about platforms’ different value drivers (e.g., network effects), companies that seek to transform their current business model into a platform-based one lack an artifact to reduce knowledge boundaries, collaborate effectively, and cope with the complexities and dynamics of platform ecosystems. We address this challenge by developing two artifacts and combining research from variability modeling, business model dependencies, and system dynamics. This paper presents a design science research approach to develop the platform ecosystem modeling language and the platform ecosystem development tool that support researcher and practitioner by visualizing and simulating platform ecosystems.

A Procedure Model for Enhancing Ideation in the Collaborative Development of Business Ecosystems

C. Vorbohle, S. Gottschalk, D. Kundisch, G. Engels, N. Wünderlich, in: Tagungsband der contribution at: 17. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik 2022 (WI), 2021

VREUD - An End-User Development Tool to Simplify the Creation of Interactive VR Scenes

E. Yigitbas, J. Klauke, S. Gottschalk, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC) , IEEE, 2021

Design Principles for a Crowd-Based Prototype Validation Platform

S. Gottschalk, M.S. Aziz, E. Yigitbas, G. Engels, in: Software Business - 12th International Conference, ICSOB 2021, Drammen, Norway, December 2-3, 2021, Proceedings, Springer, 2021, pp. 205–220


Situation- and Domain-specific Composition and Enactment of Business Model Development Methods

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, A. Nowosad, G. Engels, in: Product-focused Software Process Improvement, Springer, 2021

Developing effective business models is a complex process for a company where several tasks (e.g., conduct customer interviews) need to be accomplished, and decisions (e.g., advertisement as a revenue stream) must be made. Here, domain experts can guide the choices of tasks and decisions with their knowledge. Nevertheless, this knowledge needs to match the situation of the company (e.g., financial resources) and the application domain of the product/service (e.g., mobile app) to reduce the risk of developing ineffective business models with low market penetration. This is not covered by one-size-fits-all development methods without tailoring before the enaction. Therefore, we conduct a design science study to create a situation-specific development approach for business models. Based on situational method engineering and our previous work in storing knowledge of methods and models in distinct repositories, this paper shows the situation-specific composition and enaction of business model development methods. First, the method engineer composes the development method out of both repositories based on the situational context. Second, the business developer enacts the method and develops the business model. We implement the approach in a tool and evaluate it with a industrial case study on mobile apps.


ProConAR: A Tool Support for Model-based AR Product Configuration

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, E. Schmidt, G. Engels, in: Human-Centered Software Engineering. HCSE 2020, Springer, 2020

Mobile shopping apps have been using Augmented Reality (AR) in the last years to place their products in the environment of the customer. While this is possible with atomic 3D objects, there is is still a lack in the runtime configuration of 3D object compositions based on user needs and environmental constraints. For this, we previously developed an approach for model-based AR-assisted product configuration based on the concept of Dynamic Software Product Lines. In this demonstration paper, we present the corresponding tool support ProConAR in the form of a Product Modeler and a Product Configurator. While the Product Modeler is an Angular web app that splits products (e.g. table) up into atomic parts (e.g. tabletop, table legs, funnier) and saves it within a configuration model, the Product Configurator is an Android client that uses the configuration model to place different product configurations within the environment of the customer. We show technical details of our ready to use tool-chain ProConAR by describing its implementation and usage as well as pointing out future research directions.

Model-based Product Configuration in Augmented Reality Applications

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, E. Schmidt, G. Engels, in: Human-Centered Software Engineering. HCSE 2020, Springer, 2020

Augmented Reality (AR) has recently found high attention in mobile shopping apps such as in domains like furniture or decoration. Here, the developers of the apps focus on the positioning of atomic 3D objects in the physical environment. With this focus, they neglect the configuration of multi-faceted 3D object composition according to the user needs and environmental constraints. To tackle these challenges, we present a model-based approach to support AR-assisted product con-figuration based on the concept of Dynamic Software Product Lines. Our approach splits products (e.g. table) into parts (e.g. tabletop, ta-ble legs, funnier) with their 3D objects and additional information (e.g. name, price). The possible products, which can be configured out of these parts, are stored in a feature model. At runtime, this feature model can be used to configure 3D object compositions out of the product parts and adapt to user needs and environmental constraints. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated by a case study of configuring modular kitchens with the help of a prototypical mobile-based implementation.

Hypothesis-driven Adaptation of Business Models based on Product Line Engineering

S. Gottschalk, F. Rittmeier, G. Engels, in: Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Business Informatics, IEEE, 2020

The continuous innovation of its business models is an important task for a company to stay competitive. During this process, the company has to validate various hypotheses about its business models by adapting to uncertain and changing customer needs effectively and efficiently. This adaptation, in turn, can be supported by the concept of Software Product Lines (SPLs). SPLs reduce the time to market by deriving products for customers with changing requirements using a common set of features, structured as a feature model. Analogously, we support the process of business model adaptation by applying the engineering process of SPLs to the structure of the Business Model Canvas (BMC). We call this concept a Business Model Decision Line (BMDL). The BMDL matches business domain knowledge in the form of a feature model with customer needs to derive hypotheses about the business model together with experiments for validation. Our approach is effective by providing a comprehensive overview of possible business model adaptations and efficient by reusing experiments for different hypotheses. We implement our approach in a tool and illustrate the usefulness with an example of developing business models for a mobile application.

Model-based Hypothesis Engineering for Supporting Adaptation to Uncertain Customer Needs

S. Gottschalk, E. Yigitbas, G. Engels, in: Business Modeling and Software Design, Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 276-286

To build successful products, the developers have to adapt their product features and business models to uncertain customer needs. This adaptation is part of the research discipline of Hypotheses Engineering (HE) where customer needs can be seen as hypotheses that need to be tested iteratively by conducting experiments together with the customer. So far, modeling support and associated traceability of this iterative process are missing. Both, in turn, are important to document the adaptation to the customer needs and identify experiments that provide most evidence to the customer needs. To target this issue, we introduce a model-based HE approach with a twofold contribution: First, we develop a modeling language that models hypotheses and experiments as interrelated hierarchies together with a mapping between them. While the hypotheses are labeled with a score level of their current evidence, the experiments are labeled with a score level of maximum evidence that can be achieved during conduction. Second, we provide an iterative process to determine experiments that offer the most evidence improvement to the modeled hypotheses. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach with an example of testing the business model of a mobile application.


Business Models of Store-Oriented Software Ecosystems: A Variability Modeling Approach

S. Gottschalk, F. Rittmeier, G. Engels, in: Business Modeling and Software Design, Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 153-169

In the last years, store-oriented software ecosystems are gaining more and more attention from a business perspective. In these ecosystems, third-party developers upload extensions to a store which can be downloaded by end users. While the functional scope of such ecosystems is relatively similar, the underlying business models differ greatly in and between their different product domains (e.g. Mobile Phone, Smart TV). This variability, in turn, makes it challenging for store providers to find a business model that fits their own needs. To handle this variability, we introduce the Business Variability Model (BVM) for modeling business model decisions. The basis of these decisions is the analysis of 60 store-oriented software ecosystems in eight different product domains. We map their business model decisions to the Business Model Canvas, condense them to a variability model and discuss particular variants and their dependencies. Our work provides store providers a new approach for modeling business model decisions together with insights of existing business models. This, in turn, supports them in creating new and improving existing business models.

Verteiltes Warenwirtschaftssystem [Distributed Warehouse System]

T. Göllner, J. Schwarz, S. Gottschalk, S. Sauer. Verteiltes Warenwirtschaftssystem [Distributed Warehouse System], Patent DE 10 2018 206 390. 2019.

Beschrieben ist ein verteiltes Warenwirtschaftssystem, bei dem der Kunde, Händler, und der Hersteller vernetzt sind. Dies wird bewerkstelligt durch einen Cloud-Speicher (105), der Cloud-Speicher (105) aufweisend ein Mittel zum Speichern (105a) von Daten, ein Mittel zum Empfangen von ersten Daten von einem ersten Netzwerkteilnehmer (110), wobei die ersten Daten zugehörig sind zu einem physischen Objekt, ein Mittel zum Empfangen von Anfragedaten von einem zweiten Netzwerkteilnehmer (120), ein Mittel zum Empfangen von zweiten Daten von einem dritten Netzwerkteilnehmer (130), wobei die zweiten Daten zugehörig sind zu den ersten Daten und zumindest ein Datum aufweisen, welches angepasst ist, die ersten Daten zu ändern in Abhängigkeit der empfangenen Anfragedaten, ein Mittel zum Ändern der ersten Daten basierend zumindest im Teil auf den zweiten Daten und den Anfragedaten und ein Mittel zum Senden eines geänderten Teils der ersten Daten von dem Cloud-Speicher (105) an den ersten Netzwerkteilnehmer (110).

Intertwined Development of Business Model and Product Functions for Mobile Applications: A Twin Peak Feature Modeling Approach

S. Gottschalk, F. Rittmeier, G. Engels, in: Software Business, Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 192-207

Mobile app stores like Apple's AppStore or Google's PlayStore are highly competitive markets for third-party developers wanting to develop successful applications. During the development process, many developers focus on the multitude of product functions but neglect the business model as an equally important part. As a result, developers often fail to meet customer needs, leading to unnecessary development costs and poor market penetration. This, in turn, raises the question of how we intertwine the business model and product functions during the development process to ensure a better alignment between the two. In this paper, we show this intertwined development by adapting the concept of Twin Peaks to the business model and product functions. Based on feature modeling as an abstraction layer, we introduce the concept of a Business Model Decision Line (BMDL) to structure the business model decisions and their relation to product functions structured in a Software Product Line (SPL). The basis of our feature models is the analysis of top listed applications in the app stores of Apple and Google. To create and modify both models, we provide an incremental feature structuring and iterative feature selection process. This combination of abstraction layer and development process supports third-party developers to build successful applications both from a business and a product perspective.

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